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In the arid zone there is considerable scope for growing fruit trees like ber and pomegranate and fuel wood yielding trees like Acacia (Kikar), Prosopis (Mosquite) and Eucalyptus (Safeda). In such areas, large scale planting of shelter belts will minimize soil erosion caused by wind. It will also heRead more
In the arid zone there is considerable scope for growing fruit trees like ber and
pomegranate and fuel wood yielding trees like Acacia (Kikar), Prosopis (Mosquite) and Eucalyptus (Safeda). In such areas, large scale planting of shelter belts will minimize soil erosion caused by wind. It will also help in the establishment of pastures and grazing lands. Later on this land can be used for growing pearlmillet and mungbean.
Since water is a limiting factor in drylands, as much run off as posssible should be collected in community owned ponds, so that the crops can be gived life saving irrigation. In dry lands with red soil, deep ploughing helps in conserving water. In black soils, sowing two crops at a time is possible with surface drainage and good water management. Leaves and crop management, when mixed with soil improve its texture and water holding capacity.
If crops like pigeonpea and castor have deep roots, are cultivated in these regions, the physical condition of the soil improves further, as the roots of these crops add organic matter. Now that varieties of sorghum, millets, sunflower, safflower, mustard, groundnut various pulses and cotton are available which grow within a shorter time and can withstand scarcity of water, it is possible to diversify what grows in the dry lands.
A variety of crops and cropping patterns allow the farmer to make a proper choice of what to grow in different climate and soil types.There is a solution to the agricultural problem of the hilly regions. The upper regions of the hills are devoted to forestry. The next zone is developed for growing fruit trees, perennial fodder grass and legumes. The roots of legumes fix nitrogen and improve the soil. In the third zone, a mix of crops are raised on terraces constructed with low cost implements.
Earthen dams are constructed with locally available material. The collect enough water to be utilized for irrigation and fish culture. Polutry, piggery, bee-keeping mushroom cultivation and related activities create a self sustaining, complete farming system that perfectly blends with the ecosystem
Vector borne diseases: – Vector is defined as any living carrier that transports and infectious agent to ma susceptible individual (man). Transmission by vector may be mechanical or biological. Infections agents are mechanically transported by crawling organism or flying insect through soiling of itRead more
Vector borne diseases: – Vector is defined as any living carrier that transports and infectious agent to ma susceptible individual (man). Transmission by vector may be mechanical or biological.
Infections agents are mechanically transported by crawling organism or flying insect through soiling of its feet or by passage of organisms through its gastrointestinal tract. In Biological transmission, disease causing agent passes through a development cycle. Malaria parasites in mosquitoes etc.
The vector borne disease can be controlled by eliminating the sectors and breeding grounds. Insecticides also applied to control the insect vector of diseases. In modern times control of pests of vectors is based on integration of environmental control, chemical control, biological control and genetic control.
The environmental control includes the elimination of breeding places, proper water management, and provision of piped water supply, adequate cleanliness and intensive education. Chemical control is made by use of mineral oils and synthetic incertitude. Biological control is made by use of carnivorous fish and mosquito control. Genetic control involves sterilization of male insects. There is need of the application of insect growth regulations.
Generally two types of divergence occur in the normal curve: (i) Skewness: A distribution is said to be ‘skewed’ when the mean and median fall at different points in the distribution and the balance i.e. the point of center of gravity is shifted to one side or the other to left or right. In a normalRead more
Generally two types of divergence occur in the normal curve:
(i) Skewness: A distribution is said to be ‘skewed’ when the mean and median fall at different points in the distribution and the balance i.e. the point of center of gravity is shifted to one side or the other to left or right. In a normal distribution the mean equals, the median exactly and the skewness is of course zero (SK = o).
There are two types of skewness which appear in the normal curve:
(a) Negative Skewiiess: Distribution said to be skewed negatively or to the left when scores are massed at the high end of the scale, i.e. the right side of the curve are spread out more gradually toward the low end i.e. the left side of the curve. In negatively skewed distribution the value of median will be higher than that of the value of the mean.
(b) Positive Skewness: Distribution are skewed positively or to the ri adually toward the high or right end.
(2) Kurtosis: The term kurtosis refers to (the divergence) in the height of the curve, especially in the peakness. There are two types of divergence in the peakness of the curve
(a) Leptokurtosis: Suppose you have a normal curve which is made up of a steel wire. If you push both the ends of the wire curve together. What would happen in the shape of the curve? Probably your answer may be that by pressing both the ends of the wire curve, the curve become more peeked i.e. its top become narrower than the normal curve and scatterdness in the scores or area of the curve shrink towards the center. Thus, in a Leptokurtic distribution, the frequency distribution curve is more peaked than to the normal distribution curve.
(b) Playkurtosis: Now suppose we put a heavy pressure on the top of the wire made normal curve. What would be the change in the shape of the curve? Probabliy you may asy that the top of the curve become flatter than to the normal.
Thus, a distribution of flatter peak than to the normal is known platykurtosis distribution. When the distribution and related curve is normal, the vain of kurtosis is 0.263 (KU = 0.263).If the value of the KU is greater than 0.263, the distribution and related curve obtained will be platkurtic. When the value of KU is less than 0.263, the distributgion and related curve obtained will be Leptokurtic.
Factors causing divergence in the normal distribution/normal curve: The factors causing divergence in the normal distribution/normal curve are as follows:
(1) Selection of the Sample: Selection of the subjects (individuals) produces skewness and kurtosis in the distribution. If the sample size is small or sample is biased one, skewness is possible in the distribution of scores obtained on the basisof selected sample or group individuals.
If the scores made by small and homogeneous groups are likely to yield narrow and leptokurtic distribution. Scores from small and highly heterogeneous groups yield platykurtic distribution.
(2) Unsuitable on Poorly Made Tests: If the measuring tool or test is inappropriate or poorly made, the asymmetry is possible in the distribution of scores. If a test is too easy, scores will pile up at the high end of the scale, whereas the test is too hard, scores will pile up at the low end of the scale.
(3) The Trait being measured is Non-Normal: Skewness or Kurtosis or both will appear when there is a real lack of normality in the trait being meassured, e.g. interest, attitude, suggestibility, deaths in old age or early-childhood due to certain degenerative disceases etc.
(4) Errors in the Construction and Administration of Tests: The unstandardised with poor item-analysis test may cause asymmetry in the distribution of the scores. Similarly, while administrating the test, the unclear instructions,
i.e. errors in timings, errors in the scoring practice and motivation to complete the test-all these factors may cause skewness in the distribution.
Measurement of divergence in normality: In psychology and education, the divergence in normal distribution normal curve has a significant role in construction of the ability and mental tests and to test the representativeness of a sample taken from a large population. Further, the divergence in the distribution of scores or measurements obtained of a certain population reflects some important information about the trait of population measured. Thus, there is a need to measure the two divergence, i.e. skewness and kurtosis of the distribution of the scores.
Measuring Skewness: There are two methods to study the skewness in a distribution. These are as follows:
(1) Observation Method: There is a simple method of detecting the directions of skewness by the inspection of frequency polygon prepared on the basis of the scores obtained regarding a trait of the population or a sample drawn from a population.
Looking al the tails of the frequency polygon of the distribution obtained if longer tail of the curve is towards the higher value or upper side or right side to the centre or mean, the kewness is positive. If the longer tail is towards the lower values or lower side or lefUtffie mean, the skewness is necative.
(2) Statistical Method: To know the skewness in the distribtution, we may also use the statistical method. For the purpose, we use measures of central tendency specifically mean and median values and use the following formula.
3 Mean – Median/σ
Another measure of skewness based on precntile values, is an under:
Sk = (P30 – P10)/2 – P50
Here, it is to be kapt in mind that the above two measures are not mathematically equivalent. A normal curve has the value of Sk = 0. Deviations from normality can be negative and positively direction leading to negatively skewed and positively skewed distributions respectively.
Measuring Kurtosis: For juicing whether a distribution lacks normal symmetry or peakedness; it may detected may detected by inspection of the frequency polygon obtained. If a peak of curve is thin and sides are narrow to the centre, the distribution is leptokurtic and if the peak of the frequency distribution is too flat and sides of the curve are deviating from the centre towards ± 4 or ± 5 then the distribution is platykurtic.
Kurtosis can be measured by following formula us ing percentile values.
Ku = Q/P – P
Where Q = quartile deviation, i.e.
P10 = 10th percentile
= 90th percentile
P90 = 90th percentile
A normal distribution has KU = 0.263. If the value of KU is less than 0.263 (KU < 0.263), the distribution is leptokurtic and if KU is greater than 0.263 (KU > 0.263), the distribution is platykurtic.
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Yes these two are same subjects. This question was previously answered as well. You can check that answer Link : What is the difference between FST-01 and FST-01(S) ?
Yes these two are same subjects. This question was previously answered as well. You can check that answer
Link : What is the difference between FST-01 and FST-01(S) ?
Basic Principles of ECGC Operations: Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India works on two basic principles as detailed below: 1. Spread of Risk 2. An exporter is a Co-insurer 1. Spread of Risk: All exporters are required to insure all the shipments that are likely to be done by loan during theRead more
Basic Principles of ECGC Operations: Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India works on two basic principles as detailed below:
1. Spread of Risk
2. An exporter is a Co-insurer
1. Spread of Risk: All exporters are required to insure all the shipments that are likely to be done by loan during the next two years. To avoid undue difficulty to the exporters certain exceptions as under have been made against.
i advance payment
ii irrevocable letter of credit confirmed by banks in India.
Shipments made to agents and associates may also be excluded.
When an exporter handles and deals in different categories and types of goods he may exclude those items that are not allied to the main export items. The idea is not to allow an exporter to pick and choose only the bad risks for reduction of the premium he has to pay to obtain the policy. When everything is in general way than the premium is little low. However, the exporter is take political cover for transactions to under this clause.
An Exporter is a Co-insurer
Export Credit Guarantee Corporations only reimburses losses suffered by an exporter who has obtained its policy maximum upto 90% of the losses on account of political or commercial risk. In the event of loss due to repudition of contractual obligation by the buyer ECGC indemnifies the exporter upto 90 percent of the loss. In such situations a final and enforceable degree against the overseas buyer is obtained in a competent court of law in the buyer’s country. The corporation at its discretion may waive such legal action worthwhile against the buyer if that thinks that such a costly action is not exporter and in such cases losses to the exporter are indemnified upto 90 percent, the balance loss will have to be born by the insurer exporter. This is necessary to ensure that the exporter acts more prudently as under:
i) The exporter also takes necessary precaution in selecting the parties to which he may decide to export.
ii) He may not over extend the credit.
iii) He may take all possible care to minimize the risk involved.
Apart from these two basic principles, ECGC being a insurer in insurance business, also follows three basic principles of insurance as under:
i) Export Guarantee Corporation Contracts are contracts of good faith which means that non-disclosure of a material fact will render the contract void. In other words the exporter is bound to disclose every material fact within his knowledge to the ECGC which may adversly affect the ECGC. Again any material alteration of the risk arising between the date of the proposal and the issue of the policy must be disclosed to the ECGC.
ii) The insurer is duty bound to minimise the loss. He should conduct his business with ordinary prudence and deligence and act as uninsured. The action that needs to be taken depend on the facts and circumstances of the case.
iii) Under the principles of subrogation ECGC steps into the shoes of the exporter. If recoveries are made after the payment of claim by ECGC, they are shared with the ECGC in the same proportion in which the loss was borne.
Procedure for Making a Claim
All claims arising out of loss, or non-payment have to lodged with the ECGC for payment of the claim amount as per the terms of the insurance policy. A claim will arise when any of the risks insured under the policy materializes. If an overseas buyer goes insolvent the exporter becomes eligible to lodge a claim with ECGC after one month and if his claim is admitted by ECGC to rank against the insolvent’s estate it will be paid after one month or after four months of the due date of payment whichever is earlier.
Claims in respect of additional handling, transport or insurance charges incurred by the exporter because of interruption or diversion of voyage outside India are payable after the proof of loss or submitted to the ECGC with supporting documents, it shall be paid on verification after four months from the date of the event causing loss.
In exports to countries where long delays are experienced ECGC may extend the waiting period and the claims for such losses due to shipment of goods shall be payable only after the extended period is over.
When a buyer refuses to accept goods shipped to or refuses payment because of differences over fulfilment of the terms of contract by the exporter, counter claims or set of. In such cases ECGC considers the claim preferred on it but considers these claims after the dispute between the parties is resolved and the amount payable is established by obtaining a case in a court of law in the country of the buyer.
This condition is waived off in cases where the corporation is satisfied that the exporter is not at fault and that no useful purpose would be served by proceeding against the buyer.
Procedural Formalities: The ECGC has preseribed three types of claim forms as given under:
Form No. 501 for claims arising out due to non-payment of goods accepted by the buyer.
Form No. 502 for claims arising because of the non-acceptance of goods/document by the buyer.
Form No. 503 for claims on account of delay in transfer of funds to India.
Other kind of claims can be fitted by means of a letter giving full particulars of the cause and extent of loss. The claim forms have to be sent through the bank and only to the ECGC office which issued the policy. No claim
will be entertained by the ECGC if it is not filed with in a period of 24 months from the date of the concerned bills.
Documents in Support of Claims
Every claim has to be filed in the prescribed appropriate form and supported by documents as listed below:
a) Certified copy of the export order.
b) Certified copies of Invoices.
c) Certified copies of bills of lading.
d) Copies of the correspondence with the buyer.
e) In case of insolvency of the buyer copy of the letter from the official receiver/liquidator admitting the claim.
f) In case of protracted default.
i) Protest note
ii) Original unpaid bills
iii) advice of non-payment received from the bank. A copy of the plaintiff if a such has been files.
g) In case of transfer delays, certified copy payment advice received from the collecting bankers indicating the date on which payment was made by the buyer.
Obligation of the Policy Holder of ECGC Policy
ECGC policy holder of ECGC insurance policies are under obligation to the ECGC on the following:
1. Declaration of Shipment: An exporter who has taken a shipment policy has to send till the fifteenth of every month a declaration of shipments in the previous month in the prescribed form No.203. An exporter who obtains a contract policy has to send a declaration of all outstanding contract immediately after the policy is issued. Thereafter he shall send a monthly declaration of contracts concluded and shipments made by him during the previous month. Premium has to be paid along with the declaration at rates shown in the schedule attached to the policy.
2. Fixation of Credit Limit to Each Buyer: Under the ECGC policy the commercial risks are covered subject to a limit of a buyer as fixed by ECGC credit limit is the limit up to which a claim can be made or paid under the policy for losses on account of commercial risks, in the absence of credit limit such claims are not covered by the ECGC. A policy holder for sanction of credit limit in case of each individual buyer separately in form No. 144, before making shipments to the buyer. If necessary information requiring the buyer and the forms of contract are provided it will be easier for the ECGC to fix the credit limit for a buyer in time. ECGC obtains credit worthiness information about the buyers through banks and credit rating agencies. If the policy holder has credit raiting information about the buyer, he should pass on this information to ECGC so as to have an early fixation of credit limit of the buyer. If for some reasons the exporter requires an enhancement in buyer’s credit limit he should provid necessary information in form 144A.
3. Recording Default: A Policy holder needs take to a very prompt action in case non-payment by a buyer on due date or on presentation of Bill of Exchange. He has to submitt a monthly declaration of all bills which remain unpaid for more than 30 days in the prescribed form No. 205, indicating action taken by the policy holder in regard to collecting the payment. The policy holder with the prior approval of ECGC can grant extension of time for payment or converting bills from Drawn Against Payment DP) to Drawn Against Acceptance DA.
Unlike other sub-fields of political science, political theory does not model its approach to knowledge on the natural sciences. Political theorists see their field as among the humanities and as drawing from other humanities, such as the disciplines of ethics, history, linguistics, cultural anthroRead more
Unlike other sub-fields of political science, political theory does not model its approach to knowledge on the natural sciences. Political theorists see their field as among the humanities and as drawing from other humanities, such as the disciplines of ethics, history, linguistics, cultural anthropology, and other relevant fields.
Political philosophy is often seen as a branch of academic philosophy, with especially close and sometimes overlapping relationships to normative moral philosophy and meta-ethics. Aristotle is particularly clear in underscoring his view of the reflexive nature of these relationships.
In comparing political philosophy with political theory, the scope and the broader more all-encompassing nature of political philosophy strikes me as essential. Plato (Republic), Hobbes (Leviathan), and Marx (in the entire body of his work), are but three examples of political philosophers. On the other hand, I would identify Machiavelli, James Madison, and Isaiah Berlin as three on many examples of political theorists.
A work of political philosophy is an attempt to achieve a level of generality which explores and draws conclusions about the nature and relationships between all the major features of government and politics, as well as the context in which political systems operate and are understood. Works of political philosophy are grounded on significant assumptions about meta-physics and epistemology. Such works are also grounded theoretically by the mutually supportive nature of political principles, concepts, and institutions with fundamental moral principles, concepts, and institutions, such as justice, authority, human nature, and legitimacy. (This feature of political philosophy is no less the case in Marx’s work than,for example, in the work of Plato.) The broad scope of political philosophy is complemented by its goal of presenting and defending timeless truths or bedrock meaning. (This is also the case with political philosophers, such as Hegel, for whom history, its laws of development and historical revelation and change are of central importance
Of course, political theorists take an abstract approach, and they investigate “the political” at a level of generality unfamiliar to scholars pursuing other sub-fields of political science. Political theory has a focus on somewhat more specific basic or fundamental issues in politics than political philosophy. There is far more attention to the development of mid-level or mid-range theory in approaching such issues than to ground understanding and to defend conclusions about politics in the most basic philosophical sub-fields,such as meta-physics, epistemology, or more recently linguistics and the meaning of meaning.
Machiavelli’s concern with the principles and moral dilemmas of political leadership and the preservation and stability of a state led to conclusions in The Prince which are examples of mid-range theory that continue to stimulate examination and debate. Madison’s constitutional architecture was prompted by his deeply rooted goal to find institutional solutions under which citizens could be governed peacefully and effectively while, at the same time, prevent these political elites from becoming tyrants. Madison’s mid-range theory in achieving this goal is considered by many to be the most original and influential feature of the US Constitution of 1787. Finally, Berlin’s profound grasp of history and human nature were the tools he found essential to convincingly envision the possibility of tolerant and humane societies in which core objective moral values could be recognized and serve to guide action, while at the same time never forgetting that moral conflict between individuals, between individual societies, and even value conflict within the mind of each individual is inevitable and unavoidable.
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