0 Dhinchak Pooja Asked: July 24, 2019In: Psychology Define creativity. Critically discuss the Investment and Confluence theory of creativity. 0 1 Answer Voted Oldest Recent Best Answer admin Added an answer on July 24, 2019 at 1:47 am Creativity : The meaning of creativity is to think or do something differently. It is a kind of fantasy in which new ideas are promoted and that new ideas are essential to the advancement of human society. Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others and entertaining ourselves as well as others. In other words, it can be said that creativity is the strength or capacity to inflict and create any new object. Although novelty is given special importance in creativity, yet a creative person can present old objects in new forms instead of inventing any new object. Factors like originality, spontaneity, expansion, flexibility in work etc. are inherent in the creative production of a person. Creativity is inherent in each person. Being doctors, engineers, musicians, singers, painters, scientists, writers, etc. they are leading the world on the path of development. Creativity started with the evolution of human society. Initially there was relationship of creativity with intelligence, conscience and foreshadow, but later on scientific discoveries gave right direction to it. Investment and Confluence theory of creativity In the Investment Theory of Creativity by Sternberg, creativity has six sources that require confluence: “intelligence, knowledge, style of thinking, personality, motivation and learning environmental contexts.” Ultimately, creativity is not about one thing, but about a system of things. Intellectual abilities are generally acknowledged to be necessary but not sufficient for creativity. Intellectual ability consists of three aspects: the ability to see problems in new ways, the ability to recognize which ideas are worth pursuing and which are not, and the ability to persuade others that one’s ideas are creative. Synthetic ability in the absence of the other two abilities results in new ideas that are not subjected to the scrutiny required to make them work. Analytic ability used in the absence of the other two abilities results in powerful critical, but not creative, thinking. Knowledge: If one has to know, he must learn about it and if one can’t move beyond where a field is in case he or she doesn’t know where it is. The other side of the coin is that knowledge about a field can result in a closed and entrenched perspective of the person concerned. This may result in a person’s not moving beyond the way in which he or she has seen problems in the past. Thus, one needs to decide to use one’s past knowledge, but also decide not to let the knowledge become a hindrance rather than a help. Thinking styles are related to creativity.With regard to thinking styles, a legislative style is particularly important for creativity, that is, a preference for thinking and a decision to think in new ways. To be creative, a person has to like using the kinvesting thinking style and have preference for thinking in novel ways of his choosing. We have seen people we have the ability to forge their their own paths but simply prefer not to. Although they are wired for creative, they never turn on the juice. On the other hand, there are some people who want to come up with new ideas–who have the inventing style preference–but who don’t have the synthetic intellectual abilities to do effectively. Personality: Certain personality traits such as self-efficacy, willingness to grow, risk, and overcome obstacles, ability to tolerate ambiguity, perseverance, and courage about convictions are essential for the creative process to occur. Motivation: Intrinsic motivation is defined by an individual who engages in an activity for its own sake and focuses on the challenge and enjoyment of the work, instead of engaging in the task because of factors such as promise of rewards and punishments, dictates from superiors, and competition. High levels of intrinsic motivation have been shown to increase creative potential and therefore are necessary in order to produce creative products. Environment: Finally, Creativity cannot occur without a supportive and rewarding environment. A supportive environment completes the creative process by accepting and recognizing products as creative. Only with support from peers and rewards for creative production (e.g. recognition, compliments), will an individual’s creativity continue to flourish. Different cultures support creativity differentially and may even have different conceptions of what constitutes creativity so it is important to take the environment into account when assessing creativity. Confluence: As regards components confluence, creativity is believed to involve more than a simple sum of a person’s level on each component. One, is knowledge which creativity is not possible, regardless of the levels on other components. Secondly, is motivation, third is counteracts a weakness on another component (e.g., environment). Third, interactions present between intelligence and motivation, in which high levels on both component could multiplicatively enhance creativity of the individual. Aspects of Creativity According to Guilford (1986), there were many cognitive abilities that may appear to be essential for creativity. However, he considered four to be inherently dominant. Torrance and Guilford have both extensively discussed the creative person’s propensity for fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a test of creativity, originally involved simple tests of divergent thinking and other problem-solving skills, which were scored on these scales (aspects of creativity): Fluency is the ability or “capability to produce a large number of ideas per unit in time, other things being equal, has a greater chance of having significant ideas”. Flexibility is the ease by which individuals can change from one subject area to another. A flexible person should be able to progress from ideas that are similar to ideas that are completely different. Originality is the ability to think and develop tangible and intangible products incorporating novelty, creativity and usefulness. Elaboration is the ability to further refine and define the idea(s). A person who can utilize elaboration is one who can build upon the idea to refine it, and then apply the idea to a concern. Abstractness of Titles: It is based on the idea that creativity requires an abstraction of thought. Resistance to Premature Closure: genuinely independent of culture and manage to exhibit tolerant acceptance of behaviour expected of their society. Stages of Creativity Is there any pattern to creative thinking? Typically, five stages occur during creative problem-solving: Orientation: As a first step, the person defines the problem and identifies its most important dimensions. Preparation: In the second stage, creative thinkers saturate themselves with as much information about the problem as possible. Incubation: Most major problems produce a period during which all attempted solutions will be futile. At this point, problem solving may proceed on a subconscious level: While the problem seems to have been set aside, it is still “cooking” in the background. Illumination: The stage of incubation is often ended by a rapid insight or series of insights. These produce the “Aha!” experience, often depicted in cartoons as a lightbulb appearing over the thinker’s head. Verification: The final step is to test and critically evaluate the solution obtained during the stage of illumination. If the solution proves faulty, the thinker reverts to the stage of incubation. Creativity and Intelligence Creativity and intelligence are viewed as completely free of one another. Intelligence shouldn’t impact creativity. Creativity is seen as a mental operation open to every living soul. It is probably reliant on area particular information (i.e. the measure of presentation to and skill in a given field) and think practice. According to studies of Terman’s (1925), a high IQ shows a lacking for innovativeness. The majority of these youngsters attained momentous word related victory in later life, none of them hinted at a huge innovativeness. The majority of the studies concerning the acquaintanceship between psychometric insights and imagination yielded just a feeble relationship. Case in point, Torrance (1977) reported that the average of 178 correspondence coefficients between IQ and the TTCT was just .20. Additionally, element examinations of IQ and innovativeness tests yielded divide components. On the other hand, an inventive individual’s IQ has been showed to be no less than a standard deviation above the mean, regularly more. Guilford (1967) inferred a theory that an insignificant level of IQ, frequently subjective set to 120, ought to be vital, however not sufficient for inventiveness. Innovative accomplishment was thought to be unimaginable beneath this limit. Guilford additionally suggested that scramble plots of IQ and innovativeness might as well show a triangular design with no information focuses in the low Iq/high inventiveness quadrant. Later, Hayes (1989) put forward an elective ‘certification theory’, which questioned natural connections between inventiveness and brainpower. Rather, it expressed that generally potential outcomes to presentation a recognisable level of inventiveness, for example, occupations in structural engineering or science, essentially require an elevated amount of formal instruction. Since scholarly execution is related with IQ, social order basically prevents innovative people from securing low IQ the opportunity to express their story. Measurement of Creativity We have a review by Houtz and Krug (1995) on the measurement of creativity. The TTCT was developed in 1966, Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a test of creativity, originally involved simple tests of divergent thinking and other problem-solving skills, which were scored on four scales: Fluency. The total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus. Flexibility. The number of different categories of relevant responses. Originality. The statistical rarity of the responses. Elaboration. The amount of detail in the responses. Measures Creative Thinking Abilities: Constellation of generalized metnal abilities that are commonly presumed to be brought into play in creative achievements. Divergent/produtive/inventive thinking, imagination. It is consists of 3 activities: Picture construction. Picture completion. Lines. Criticisms against TTCT Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) has been criticized mainly on four grounds: Result of these tests may be affected by the response set. Testing under different conditions result in the differences in performance of the subject. Even results of different raters may differ. these tests have an inadequate structure. -4 Reply Share Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on LinkedIn Share on WhatsApp Leave an answerLeave an answerCancel reply Featured image Select file Browse Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.