1 Anonymous Asked: March 15, 2020In: Psychology Differentiate speech disorders from language disorders. Describe various speech disorders in terms of their characteristics ,feature and causes? 1 1 Answer Voted Oldest Recent Best Answer admin Added an answer on March 27, 2020 at 7:19 pm Speech: ‘Speech’ refers to the sounds we make when we are talking. We put strings of sounds together to create words. For example, ‘Cat’ is made up of 3 sounds – C, A and T. he number of sounds in a word does not necessarily correspond to the number of letters when spelling the word. For example, ‘Fright’ is made up of the sounds F, R, I and T (the ‘I’ would be pronounced like ‘eye’). Different sounds develop at different ages, for example, ‘m’ is typically acquired at around 3 years old, whereas ‘v’ is not typically acquired until 6 years, and ‘th’ until 8 years (Kilminster & Laird, 1978). Children initially will not be able to produce certain sounds, or produce all the sounds in a longer word and so employ phonological processes e.g. saying ‘lectic’ for ‘electric’ or always producing ‘k’ as ‘t’. For more information on phonological processes used in typical development. Speech Sound Disorder (SSD) is an umbrella term referring to slow development of, or a difficulty with, speech development. An SSD could include articulation disorder, phonological disorder, childhood apraxia of speech and motor-speech disorders. If a child has a speech sound disorder, they may have difficulty producing certain sounds past the age at which those sounds would typically have been acquired. They may use a pattern of sound errors (phonological processes) past the age at which this may be typical. A child may be unable to coordinate the sounds needed to make up words, or have a structural or neurological reason that they cannot produce all of the sounds we use when we are talking. A child may also have difficulty processing certain sounds; this will inevitably lead to difficulty producing that sound. This could have different causes e.g. glue ear, or an Auditory Processing Disorder. A Speech and Language Therapist will assess your child’s ability to process and produce a full range of speech sounds to identify how to best target any difficulties in therapy. They may use a formal assessment such as the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) (Dodd et. al., 2002). Language Language refers to the meaning of the words we use. When we talk, we string words together into sentences to convey meaning. We also listen to other people’s sentences to understand what they are telling us. Children move through language development milestones, however there will of course be some variation between them. Children may have a language delay if they do not achieve language norms within the expected time-frame. Children may also be diagnosed with ‘Specific Language Impairment’; this is where language is below the expected level in relation to a child’s academic abilities in the absence of general learning difficulty, hearing impairment, autism spectrum condition or anything else that could explain their language difficulty. A Speech and Language Therapist will assess your child for language impairment. They may use a formal assessment such as the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) (Semel et. al., 2006), along with speaking to the child’s parents and teachers. They may also observe the child in different settings. They will use the information gained in assessment to inform their therapy plan. Characteristics and Types of Speech Impairments: There are three types of speech impairments, each with their own set of characteristics. The three types are: Articulation disorders Fluency disorders Voice disorders Articulation disorders are characterized by the distortion or absence of speech sounds. An example of an articulation disorder is trouble pronouncing blended sounds, such as ‘sp.’ A child who has trouble with this may incorrectly pronounce ‘spaghetti’ as ‘thaghetti.’ Fluency disorders, also known as disfluency, are characterized by an interruption or break in the normal flow of speech, such as stuttering. Another example is the false start, which is when you say something, but stop in the middle of your sentence and restart with a new idea, for example, ‘I really liked, it is so cold outside.’ Voice disorders are characterized by impairments in the voice, including loudness, vocal quality, and pitch. For example, throat cancer can decrease the quality and pitch of your voice and make it difficult for others to understand you. Speech disorders affect the vocal cords, muscles, nerves, and other structures within the throat. Causes may include: vocal cord damage brain damage muscle weakness respiratory weakness strokes polyps or nodules on the vocal cords vocal cord paralysis People who have certain medical or developmental conditions may also have speech disorders. Common conditions that can lead to speech disorders are: autism attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) strokes oral cancer laryngeal cancer Huntington’s disease dementia amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease Speech disorders may be hereditary, and they can develop over time. -3 Reply Share Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on LinkedIn Share on WhatsApp Leave an answerLeave an answerCancel reply Featured image Select file Browse Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.