0 Anonymous Asked: July 2, 2020In: PsychologyDiscuss the characteristics, steps and methods of ethnography.0 2 AnswersVotedOldestRecentadmin 0 Questions 179 Answers 91 Best Answers 845 Points View Profile admin Added an answer on July 6, 2020 at 5:07 pm Ethnography is characterised by:It Gathering data from the range of sources, e.g. interviews, observations, conversations and documents.Studying behaviour in everyday contexts rather than experimental conditions.Using an unstructured approach to data gathering in the early stages, so that key issues can emerge gradually through analysis.Comprising an in-depth study of one or two situations.Steps in Ethnographic Method (1) Ethnographer starts with selection of a culture, review of the literature pertaining to the culture and identification of variables (2) The ethnographer then goes about gaining entrance, which in turn sets the stage for cultural immersion of the ethnographer in the culture. It is not unusual for ethnographers to live in culture for months or even years. (3) The middle stages of the ethnographic method involve gaining informants, using them to gain yet more informants in a chaining process, and gathering data in the form of observational transcripts and interview recordings. (4) Data analysis and theory development come at the end, though theories may emerge from cultural immersion and theory-articulation by members of the culture.However, the ethnographic researcher strives to avoid theoretical preconceptions and instead to induce theory from the perspectives of the members of the culture and from observation. The researcher may seek validation of induced theories by going back to members of the culture for their reaction. Ethnographic methodologies vary and some ethnographers advocate use of structured observation schedules by which one may code observed behaviours or cultural artefacts for purposes of later statistical analysis.Other Methods of Ethnography: Macro-ethnography is the study of broadly-defined cultural groupings, such as “the Indians”. Micro-ethnography is the study of narrowly-defined cultural groupings, such as “young working class women” or “Members of Congress.” Emic perspective is the ethnographic research approach to the way the members of the given culture perceive their world. The emic perspective is usually the main focus of ethnography.Etic perspective is the ethnographic research approach to the way non-members (outsiders) perceive and interpret behaviours and phenomena associated with a given culture. Situational reduction refers to the view of ethnographers that social structures and social dynamics emerge from and may be reduced analytically to the accumulated effects of micro situational interactions (Collins, 1988). Put another way, the cosmos is best understood in microcosm. Symbols, always a focus of ethnographic research, are any material artefacts of a culture, such as art, clothing, or even technology. The ethnographer strives to understand the cultural connotations associated with symbols. Technology, for instance, may be interpreted in terms of how it relates to an implied plan to bring about a different desired state for the culture. Cultural patterning is the observation of cultural patterns forming relationships involving two or more symbols. Ethnographic research is holistic, believing that symbols cannot be understood in isolation but instead are elements of a whole.One method of patterning is conceptual mapping, using the terms of members of the culture themselves to relate symbols across varied forms of behaviour and in varied contexts. Another method is to focus on learning processes, in order to understand how a culture transmits what it perceives to be important across generations. A third method is to focus on sanctioning processes, in order to understand which cultural elements are formally (ex., legally) prescribed or proscribed and which are informally prescribed or proscribed, and of these which are enforced through sanction and which are unenforced. Tacit knowledge is deeply-embedded cultural beliefs which are assumed in a culture’s way of perceiving the world, so much so that such knowledge is rarely or never discussed explicitly by members of the culture, but rather must be inferred by the ethnographer.From MPC-004 Advanced Social Psychology – IGNOU0Reply Share ShareShare on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on LinkedInShare on WhatsAppPrashank Kumar New Delhi, India 0 Questions 5 Answers 0 Best Answers 31 Points View Profile Prashank Kumar Added an answer on July 2, 2020 at 10:01 pm What is Ethnography? Ethnography can be briefly defined as the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. It is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. Ethnography is a qualitative research method where researchers observe and/or interact with a study’s participants in their real-life environment. It was initially popular in the field of anthropology, but is now used across a wide range of social sciences. A good researcher is required when observing and/or interacting with target audiences in their real-life environment Key Features of Ethnographic Studies • Usually focus on very few cases, maybe just one, but in detail • Often involve working with previously unstudied phenomenon • Emphasise on exploring social phenomena rather than testing of preset hypotheses • Focus on describing the culture of a group in very detailed and complex manner • Involve engaging in extensive fieldwork where data collection is mainly by interviews, symbols, artifacts, observations, and many other sources of data • Field-based and is conducted in the settings in which real people actually live, rather than in laboratories where the researcher controls the elements of the behaviors to be observed or measured. • A holistic approach to the study of cultural systems • A process of discovery, making inferences, and continuing inquiries in an attempt to achieve maximum validity • An open-ended emergent learning process, and is highly flexible and creative process • Interpretive, reflexive, and constructivist process • Requires the daily and continuous recording of field notes • Tries to earn trust of the respondents Major steps involved in Ethnography 1.Identify intent and type of design and relate intent to your research problem. 2.Discuss approval and access considerations. 3.Collect appropriate data emphasizing time in field, multiple sources, collaboration. 4. Analyse and interpret data within a design. 5. Write report consistent with your design. Skills required for Ethnographic Studies Ethnographic studies require wide range of skills. These can be briefly listed as follows: • High degree of interpretative agility is required to understand the wide range of issues and facts involved in the study. • The researcher needs to be unbiased and unprejudiced in order for the study to draw valid and reliable conclusions. • The researcher needs to be familiar with the social settings and needs to have a high degree of intellectuality and diplomacy. • The researcher needs to possess good interactional and inter-personal skills. • The researcher needs to be sensitive towards the culture, values and norms of the social setting in which the study is being conducted.0Reply Share ShareShare on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on LinkedInShare on WhatsAppLeave an answerLeave an answerCancel reply Featured image Select file Browse Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.