0 Puneet Asked: July 11, 20192019-07-11T09:51:10+05:30 2019-07-11T09:51:10+05:30In: Public Administration Distinguish between Secretariat Department and Executive Department. 0 Distinguish between Secretariat Department and Executive Department. Indian Administration 1 Answer Voted Oldest Recent Best Answer admin 2019-07-11T09:59:41+05:30Added an answer on July 11, 2019 at 9:59 am Distinction Between Secretariat Department and Executive Department: The basic approach is that policy-making work should be separate from the execution of the policy. Due to this separation of powers between the two, the responsibility of the Secretariat is to aid, assist, and advice the political executive in policy formulation. The execution of the policy is the responsibility of the Executive Department. The secretariat department is normally headed by a generalist civil servant (IAS). Each secretariat department is in-charge of a number of executive departments. It depends upon the nature of the work of the secretariat department. Some secretariat departments do not require any executive departments, for example Department of Law, Finance, etc. The executive department is headed by a specialist and functions under the supervision of the secretariat department. For example, a specialist like Director of Agriculture would function under the supervision of a generalist, the Secretary of Agriculture. Likewise, the education director functions under the education secretary and industry director under the industry secretary. The administrative philosophy of separating policy formulation from its execution evolved to counter the argument that politics should be kept out of administration. The policy is concerned with political choices and broader values while the execution deals with practical nitty-gritty. Historically, the separation of policy-making from its execution evolved to underline the importance of the political executive. Woodrow Wilson held, that policy formulation is the responsibility of the political executive and the job of an administrator is limited to implement the policies. Max Weber justified it and held that examining the policy is not the job of the administrators who execute it. The experience of the administrators is very valuable for those responsible to take political decisions of policy formulation. The administrators get acquainted with many aspects of policy execution. They know the problems and practical Difficulties which do come up later in the course of policy implementation. This, in fact, gives them an edge over the politicians in decision-making and policy formulations. The amount of inputs available by the use of modern advances in data storage, processing and management has made vast difference to the capability of evaluations. This is being used by new generations of specialists and professionals coming to the administrative services and manning the key positions. The administrators on the basis of being more informed and having expertise in their field, have come to play a wider role in policy formulation. The reasons are: (a) The importance of facts, figures and relevant data in policy formulation can not be exaggerated. In order to make the policies really effective the politicians require the data support and depend on the administrators for it. (b) On the basis of their long experience, the administrators tender valuable advice on feasibility of better policy options. (c) The policy formulations which get the final form of an Act passed by the Legislature, originate in form of a draft prepared by the civil servants, which after getting ministerial approval are place before the legislature. (d) When required to choose between various alternative courses of actions, the administrators exercise administrative discretion. Policy decisions in various modern fields require high technical expertise and the legislature has no option but to confine itself to indicating broad framework of law, leaving the details to be finalized by those well-versed in the particular fields. 9 Reply Share Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on LinkedIn Share on WhatsApp Leave an answerLeave an answerCancel reply Featured image Select file Browse Answer Anonymously Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.