0 Anonymous Asked: July 5, 20202020-07-05T18:20:34+05:30 2020-07-05T18:20:34+05:30In: Psychology Explain the methods of conflict resolution. 0 Explain the methods of conflict resolution. 2 Answers Voted Oldest Recent Prashank Kumar 2020-07-05T18:22:19+05:30Added an answer on July 5, 2020 at 6:22 pm Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict. Often, committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs), and by engaging in collective negotiation. Ultimately, a wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including but not limited to, negotiation, mediation, diplomacy, and creative peacebuilding. The term conflict resolution may also be used interchangeably with dispute resolution, where arbitration and litigation processes are critically involved. Furthermore, the concept of conflict resolution can be thought to encompass the use of nonviolent resistance measures by conflicted parties in an attempt to promote effective resolution Theories and models Dual concern model of conflict resolution The dual concern model of conflict resolution is a conceptual perspective that assumes individuals’ preferred method of dealing with conflict is based on two underlying themes or dimensions: A concern for self (i.e. assertiveness), and A concern for others (i.e. empathy). According to the model, group members balance their concern for satisfying personal needs and interests with their concern for satisfying the needs and interests of others in different ways. The intersection point between these two dimensions ultimately lead individuals towards exhibiting different styles of conflict resolution (Goldfien & Robbennolt, 2007). The dual model identifies five conflict resolution styles/strategies that individuals may use depending on their dispositions toward pro-self or pro-social goals. 1. Avoidance conflict style Characterized by inaction and passivity, avoidance conflict style is typically used when an individual has reduced concern for their own outcomes as well as the outcomes of others. During conflict, these avoiders adopt a “wait and see” attitude, often allowing conflict to phase out on its own without any personal involvement (Bayazit & Mannix, 2003). Unfortunately, by neglecting to address high-conflict situations, avoiders risk allowing problems to fester out of control. 2. Yielding conflict style In contrast, yielding or “accommodating” conflict styles are characterized by a high concern for others while having a low concern for one’s own self. This passive pro-social approach emerges when individuals derive personal satisfaction from meeting the needs of others and have a general concern for maintaining stable, positive social relationships. When faced with conflict, individuals with a yielding conflict style tend to give into others’ demands out of respect for the social relationship (e.g., to maintain group unity) because they believe being “agreeable may be more important than winning” (Goldfien & Robbennolt, 2007). 3. Competitive conflict style Competitive or “fighting” conflict style maximizes individual assertiveness (i.e., concern for self) and minimizes empathy (i.e., concern for others). Groups consisting of competitive members generally enjoy seeking domination over others, and typically see conflict as a “win or lose” predicament. Fighters tend to force others to accept their personal views by employing competitive, power tactics (e.g., argue; insult; accuse; violence) that foster feelings of intimidation (Morrill, 1995). 4. Cooperation conflict style Characterized by an active concern for both pro-social and pro-self behavior, cooperation conflict style is typically used when an individual has elevated interests in their own outcomes as well as in the outcomes of others. During conflict, cooperators collaborate with others in an effort to find an amicable solution that satisfies all parties involved in the conflict. Individuals with this type of conflict style tend to be highly assertive and highly empathetic at the same time. By seeing conflict as a creative opportunity, collaborators willingly invest time and resources into finding a “win-win” solution. According to the literature on conflict resolution, a cooperative conflict resolution style is recommended above all others (Sternberg & Dobson, 1987; Jarboe & Witteman, 1996) 5. Conciliation conflict style Conciliation or “compromising” conflict style is typical of individuals who possess an intermediate-level of concern for both personal and others’ outcomes. Compromisers value fairness and, in doing so, anticipate mutual give-and-take interactions. By accepting some demands put forth by others, compromisers believe this agreeableness will encourage others to meet half-way, thus promoting conflict resolution (van de Vliert & Euwema, 1994). This conflict style can be considered an extension of both “yielding” and “cooperative” strategies 0 Reply Share Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on LinkedIn Share on WhatsApp admin 2020-07-06T16:57:34+05:30Added an answer on July 6, 2020 at 4:57 pm Conflict resolution refers to the process geared toward reaching an agreement in a dispute, debate, or any other form of conflict between two or more parties. It can take different forms: Participants may negotiate and attempt to solve their problems to mutual satisfaction, they may withdraw from the situation and avoid interacting with each other, they may fight and try to dominate their counterpart, or they may yield and give in to their adversary’s position. Mutually Beneficial Goal: A common approach to ameliorate social conflict is to establish mutually beneficial goals. Such goals prompt the warring parties to work in close cooperation and help reduce feelings of group struggle. In a classical experiment Sherif and Sherif put two groups in a social situation which involved competition between the two parties. It was observed that very soon they developed feelings of animosity and competition. Things reached to a level where both parties raided each other’s camps to hurt and damage their prospects of attaining goal. In the next phase of the experiment both the warring parties were put in a situation which called for joint efforts to reach the goal. Since neither of them had sufficient resources to attain goal on their own, they were left with no alternative but to help each other to surmount problems faced by them. Not longer than before it was observed that members of both parties began trying to understand each other’s concerns. They started seeing members of the opposite group very often and appreciated each other’s approach to handle problems. Thus, by the end of the experiment both the groups had developed a better understanding of each other and there was a marked reduction in feeling of conflict. Compromise: Reaching a compromise between the two parties also leads to reduction of struggle. Compromise is a situation where no party stands to gain or lose anything. Thus it gradually leads to reduction in struggle. For example, when Gurjars in Rajasthan pressured the government for inclusion into scheduled tribes, the Meenas vehemently opposed their demand since they have been the biggest gainer in Rajasthan. This conflict led to open war between them and resulted in many casualties and bloodshed. Now that the location of both communities is such that they are found living side by side almost all over Rajasthan, they soon realised the futility of opposing each other. A compromise was struck between the two and an understanding was arrived at under which gujjars dropped their demand for inclusion into scheduled tribe but asked for a separate quota for themselves and Meenas agreed to support Gurjars demand. Thus under the new agreement both parties stood to gain or lose nothing at the cost of each other. Developing special norms: Conflict between two warring factions or groups may be reduced through the development of special norms. For example, in a game, the question of who will take first turn may be settled by leaving it to the umpire. Thus the bone of contention is removed and thereby the cause of conflict is removed. Psychologists have delineated social conditions, on the basis of studies, where conflict and struggle can be handled through developing special norms. According to them social conditions where both parties have the ability and will influence each other lend themselves to such interventions. This technique has reportedly been successfully used in a number of situations with different communities. Prosocial Behavior: By prosocial behaviour we mean behaviour that creates some kind of positive social influence among others. For example, giving charity, working for the welfare of others, helping others in distress are some of the forms of prosocial behaviour. Studies reveal that when members of a community engage in some kind of prosocial behaviour toward members of other community it has direct impact on their perception and opinion about them and results significantly in the reduction of feelings of conflict and struggle. From MPC-004 Advanced Social Psychology – IGNOU 0 Reply Share Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on LinkedIn Share on WhatsApp Leave an answerLeave an answerCancel reply Featured image Select file Browse Answer Anonymously Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.